We are living in the 21st Century. This is a modern world. The world has changed incredibly over the past few centuries. Scientific inventions revolutionize this entire planet. Now we are blessed with such knowledge that was unimaginable even a century ago.
We know no boundaries now. Our wisdom and knowledge have gone beyond this tiny earth. Science has blessed us with the knowledge of the Space, Solar System, Other Planets, Black Holes, and even other Universe. We have set foot outside the earth, our very own moon, that was quite unthinkable even a century ago.
Now we are venturing further and further. We have sent our technologies successfully on the surface of Mars now.
For these scientific inventions, we have come to know the earth better. Now we know why the earth is habitable for humans. Now we know what causes the days and nights. Now we are aware of what causes summers and winters round and round every year.
This article is about the seasons we experience on this planet. What months are the four seasons? You may find this question very simple and easy to answer. Maybe you are wondering why so many science talks! We assure you that this article is going to blow your mind.
There are so many scientific facts behind the seasons. Here we will discuss which season consists of what months. We will also discuss what causes the season to happen in the first place. So, sit tight to begin your wonderful journey with us.
How is Different Seasons In Different Places On The Earth? Explained
What Months are the Four Seasons?
We have already mentioned that this question is not as simple as it appears. The season depends on the hemispheres of the earth. In other words, if it is the summer season in the northern hemisphere, it would be the winter season in the southern hemisphere.
We will elaborate on this thing later in this article. Each season is determined based on the atmosphere of a particular area. And this atmosphere depends on sunlight. An atmosphere can be hot, cold, humid, snowy, and/or rainy. In most parts of this world, the season is categorized into four types.
These are summer, autumn (fall), winter, and spring. They come round and round every year. Now, there are two methods of determining seasons. One is Astronomical Method and the other is Meteorological Method. Many countries consider the starting date of a season according to the Astronomical method. Others consider the starting date according to the meteorological method. Anyway, below is a list of seasons indicating the months they are consisting of.
Countries in the Northern Hemisphere,
- Summer Season- June, July, and August
- Autumn Season- September, October, November
- Winter Season- December, January, February
- Spring- March, April, May
Countries in the Southern Hemisphere,
- Summer Season- December, January, February
- Autumn Season- March, April, May
- Winter Season- June, July, August
- Spring Season- September, October, November
Wonderful, isn’t it? We are living on the same planet, but somewhere it is boiling hot and somewhere it is cold. Somewhere it is raining, and some elsewhere it is snowing. So, why is this difference? What causes season? Scroll down and check these out below.
What Causes Season?
Season causes because of the Sun-Light. To understand it better, we have to know how the Earth is moving around the sun and at the same time how the Earth is rotating on its axis. Let’s read the below points and try to understand how it works.
- Axis is an imaginary bar penetrating the planet from the North Pole (Arctic) to the South Pole (Antarctic).
- The Earth is always rotating on its axis. This rotation causes days and nights to happen. The Earth takes about 24 hours to rotate once on its axis.
- There is an imaginary line dividing the Earth from its belly. This line runs across the east and the west dividing the Earth into North Hemisphere and South Hemisphere. This line is called the Equator.
- The North portion of the Equator is North Hemisphere and the South portion is the South Hemisphere.
- The Earth rounds the sun following its orbit. While orbiting the Sun, Earth’s axis is slightly tilted from the orbit. It is about 23.4 degrees leaning from the orbit.
- Because of the leaning or tilting, sometimes the Northern Hemisphere gets the most sunlight, and sometimes while orbiting, the Southern Hemisphere gets the most sunlight. This is what causes season.
- So, the axial tilt of the Earth, while rotating the Sun, causes season on our planet.
In the next section, we will try to figure out when it is summer in the Northern Hemisphere and the opposite in the Southern Hemisphere. And when it is summer in the Southern Hemisphere and opposite in the Northern Hemisphere.
Summer in the Northern Hemisphere
While orbiting the Sun, in June, the Earth comes to a point where its Northern Hemisphere is nearest to the Sun. It faces the sun more than the other hemisphere. This part gets the most sunlight. This is because of the axial tilt. This situation is known as the June Solstice.
In June solstice, the sun is directly overhead on the Tropic of Cancer, in the Northern Hemisphere. So, during the June Solstice, it is summer in the Northern Hemisphere of the Earth. The Earth continues orbiting as time passes. For this reason, in the Northern countries, it is summer during June, July, and August.
Winter in the Southern Hemisphere
The June solstice causes the opposite situation in the Southern Hemisphere. This portion is away from the direct sunlight and away from the Sun because of the tilt. The lack of direct sunlight causes winter in this portion of the world. So, it is the winter season in the Southern countries during June, July, and August.
Spring and Autumn due to September Equinox
After the June Solstice, the Earth continues to orbit the Sun. As the months pass by, both the hemispheres of the Earth get equal sunlight. Then, in September at a certain date, the sun directly overhead the Equator. This situation is known as the September Equinox. As the two hemispheres get equal sunlight, no portion is much warmer or much cooler.
So, this situation causes Spring season and Autumn Season. During this time, the duration of day and night is almost equal, around 12 hours. In September Equinox, during September, October, and November, it is Spring season in the countries of the Southern Hemisphere (nearing Summer).
And vice versa, in September, October, and November, it is Autumn in the countries of the Northern Hemisphere (nearing Winter).
Summer in the Southern Hemisphere
After the September Equinox, the Earth continues orbiting the Sun. Gradually the Southern portion comes closer to the Sun. It fronts the Sun and gets more sunlight. At a certain date in December, the Sun directly overhead the Tropic of Capricorn, in the Southern Hemisphere.
This situation is called the December Solstice. For this reason, the Southern portion gets warmer and the Northern portion gets cooler. So, in December, January, and February, it is the summer season in the Southern Countries of the Equator.
Winter in the Northern Hemisphere
During the December Solstice, the situation is quite opposite in the Northern Hemisphere comparing to the Southern. Now, this portion gets less direct sunlight. So, it gets a lot cooler. For this reason, it is the winter season in December, January, and February, in the Northern countries of the Equator.
Spring and Autumn due to March Equinox
After the December Solstice, the Earth continues to orbit the Sun. Gradually, both the hemispheres get equal sunlight. Then, in March at a certain date, the Sun gets directly overhead the Equator. This situation is known as the March Equinox. As the two hemispheres get equal sunlight, no portion is much warmer or much cooler. So, this situation causes Spring season and Autumn Season.
During this time, the duration of day and night is almost equal, around 12 hours. In March Equinox, during March, April, and May, it is Spring season in the countries of the Northern Hemisphere (nearing Summer). And vice versa, in March, April, and May, it is Autumn in the countries of the Southern Hemisphere (nearing Winter).
Gradually, the Earth moves to the June Solstice position while orbiting the Sun. So, the cycle of the season starts again. Please, note that the Earth takes a year orbiting around the Sun. This is the reason we get every season once a year.
Some Facts about Season
Now we know why there are seasons on our planet. There are some interesting facts about the Solstices, Equinoxes, and Seasons that you may not know. Let’s take a quick look below to find out these wonderful facts.
- June Solstice is the longest day in a year in the Northern Hemisphere. Similarly, December Solstice is the longest day in a year in the Southern Hemisphere.
- The distance between the Earth and the Sun has very little effect on seasons. It is the axial tilt that causes seasons on the Earth.
- The Earth does not orbit the Sun at a constant speed. It takes 92.8 days to reach from March Equinox to June Solstice. Then, takes 93.6 days to reach September Equinox. It takes 89.8 days to reach December Solstice from there. Finally, it takes 89.0 days to reach the March Equinox point. So, the spring and summer are longer in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere.
- On the day of June Solstice, the Arctic Circle (not the entire North Hemisphere), closer to the North Pole, experiences 24-hours sunlight. This event is also known as the Midnight Sun. On the other hand, during this event, the Antarctic Circle, at the South Pole, experiences 24-hours no sunlight. It is also known as the Polar Night.
- According to the Astronomy method, the day of June Solstice marks the beginning of summer in the Northern Countries.
- According to the Meteorological method, 1st June is the day when summer starts.
The Bottom Lines
Finding out the consisting months of a season is not simple. It is different in the two hemispheres. When it is summer in the Northern Hemisphere, it is winter in the Southern part. The tilt of the Earth’s axis, causing leaning to the sun, is responsible for seasons in our sweet home. We are truly blessed and lucky to have such a beautiful planet endowed with colorful seasons.
Frequently Asked Questions
Q: What Are The Four Seasons That Occur In Some Places On Earth?
Q: Which Countries Have 2 Seasons?
Q: What Season Is It In November?
Q: What Season Is It In NZ?